State of the art
research work about IEC algorithms conducted during 1990s
was originated by the pioneer contribution to this field made
by Dawkins in 1986, [Dawkins 1986].
the IEC field, two different research streams are distinguished:
stream: the birth of this stream comes from the
research work done with artificial life (AL). AL is focused
on the emulation of biological life models through complex
algorithms. For this task it is necessary good graphics creation,
good image treatment, and quality sounds and music, [Sims
1991b], [Sims 1991c], [Sims
[Disz 1997], [Unemi
2000] and [Unemi 2003].
technology stream: comes from the research of interaction
between humans and computer systems. This stream is more
focused on the IEC algorithms interface, trying to decrease
the users' fatigue and improving the algorithms' inputs
and outputs, making them more efficient. IEC has been expanded
to practical fields such as engineering, education, etc,
[Parmee 1993], [Ventrella
1994a], [Takagi 1996], [Poli
1997], [Parmee 1998] and [Takagi
1998], unlike the early stages of IEC that was only
focused on artistic applications.
first IEC research was the Biomorph of Dawkins, whose polemic
theory of evolution, the selfish gene, was useful and motivating
for many of the following works, [Ochoa
1998], [Mccormack 1993], and
used a conventional recursive algorithm with the aim of building
trees with an L-system (Lindenmayer). The system called Blind
Watchmaker creates evolutionary species called biomorphs that
iterate with two operators, which are subjective selection
of the L-system outputs and mutation of genes that express
the number and angles of L-systems branches, and created several
insect like 2-D CG forms. During this experiment the user
acts like a natural selection filter. After several selections
of those more appropriate for the user point of view, he or
she gets one (more or less) near to the target.
there is a large number of applications in this field based
on mathematical equations (fractal generation), [Sims
1991a] and [Sims 1992], [Baluja
1993] and [Baluja 1994], [Lund
1995], or [Angeline 1996], [Raynal
1999] and [Lutton 2003], for
3D rendering, [Todd 1991], [Broughton
1997], [Das 1994] and [Tam
2002], for virtual creatures generation, [Sims
1994], [Rowland 2000], or
aerodynamic surface design (wings), [NGuyen
1993], [NGuyen 1994] and [NGuyen
And artistic applications of IEC like Mutator [Todd
1991], [Todd 1994] and [Todd
1999] or [Bentley 1999a], that
is used for animation design, cartoon faces design or even
screen saver design applications.
the genetic programming (GP) applications environment there
is a branch called Interactive Genetic Programming (IGP) with
many works done for 3D graphics generation used with a Computer-Animated
Virtual Environment, CAVE [Das 1994],
[Papka 1996] and [Disz
1997], applications for artistic design or animations
based on mathematic equations generated by IGP, [Sims
1991], [Sims 1991a], [Sims
1992], [Sims 1993] and [Min
2004]. Results of this work are Panspermia or
Primordial Dance, design with GP
a good example of IEC and artistic creations is good to remark
the project Galapagos, [Sims
1997], and SBART, [Unemi 2000].
Galapagos' project is an IEC application based on
L-Systems that allow the visitors to create interesting images
that are nowadays exposed in Tokio Multimedia Museum, (NTT
Tokio Multimedia Museum
Galapagos' output sample
is an open source tool for generating graphics with IGP [Unemi
2000]. It uses trees of equations with Genetic Programming
(GP), and calculate the value of each pixel. The equations
come from the combination of the basic arithmetic operators:
exponential, root, sine, cosine, logarithm, maximum and minimum.
SBART workings is very simple, the user evaluates 20 2D images
and after selecting one, the next 20 are generated. This
process is repeated until a valid solution is found. Many
works can be found in cartoon animation design by computer
field. One of the most remarkable is the AnimationLab that
to design the motion of one figure interacting with the user.
Each part of the figure has an angle and a direction for each
extremity, those figures that are capable to walk or run have
more chances to be chosen again.
More detailed information in this field can be found in other
works like [McKenna 1990], [Ventrella
1994a], [Ventrella 1994b], or
[Ventrella 1995], [Lim
1999] and [Lim 2000].
Interactive Evolutionary Programming (IEP) has several artistic
applications like the fractal generation made by [Angeline
1996], where the user evaluates 10 animations and the
system is responsible for the evolution of the selected ones.
was applied to music generation, starting with the first application
called GENJAM, [Biles 1994], [Biles
1996] or [Biles 1999] and [Biles
interesting applications are Sonomorph, [Nelson
1993] and [Nelson 1995], or
SBEAT, [Unemi 2003], [Horowitz
1994], [Onisawa 2000], [Tokui
2000] and [Fels 2002]. As a
result of these applications there are some music songs published
that can be heard sometimes in the radio station WDYN. (100.1,
New York, USA, WEBPage: http://www.wdyn.net/).
most common way of working of this type of music generation
systems is through the application of specific IEC algorithms,
as can be seen in the next figure:
the evaluation cycle it is important to see how the user interacts
with the system, and how the evaluation of music is complex
because it must be done sequentially, and with short pieces.
GENJAM works with only one masterpiece that evolves in real
time while the user evaluates the generated melodies.
and Signal Treatment
sound and signal treatment is also an interesting field for
IEC algorithms. There are applications for speech synthesis,
noise reduction (Finite Impulse Response, FIR), [Watanabe
1995] and [Todoroki 2000], hearing
aid fitting or sound/signal filtering like the signal treatment
as images, [Hsu 2000].
next figure shows how is the most common scheme for this field.
Scheme for sound and signal treatment with IEC
work related with speech synthesis can result in different effects
in the speaker voice like peace, happiness or fear, based
on the phonetic information and the prosodic parameters. Speech
has phonetic and prosodic information, and voice impression
and naturalness are controlled by prosodic parameters of pitch,
amplitude, duration, and speed. The IEC was used to modify
prosodic parameters and change voice impressions, [Sato
1996] and [Sato 1997].
result of the subjective test showed that the quality of the
recovered speech was significantly better than original speech,
and not only for IGA users, also for other subjects as well.
For this purpose the user interaction is absolutely recommendable
because the naturalness of the speech can be only determined
by another human.
For hearing aid fitting, the combination of IEC techniques
to digital signal processing have spread and solved several
problems that conventional analog type of hearing aids were
unable to overcome. The essential reason to use IEC is that
the user is the only one that can identify which combination
of filters are more suitable for him, because no one can perceive
how another person hears. For this reason the IEC is an interesting
and powerful tool to adjust the signal processor parameters
[Ohsaki 1998], [Takagi
2000b]. In fact, nowadays there is an application running
successfully with real users and excellent results, [Fujii
2000], and recent studies found more satisfaction with
IEC systems rather than the traditional ones, [Takagi
1999b], [Fujii 2000] and [Ohsaki
digital cameras, scanners and PCs, bring to home the latest
technology in image capture. Therefore, the digital image
processing requirements are growing each day and even more
in domestic environments, where the amateur user tries to
make up the images with special effects or filters. These
tasks that were reserved only for profesional purposes years
ago, now is extended for all users.The
IEC fits perfectly in this field, because it allows the simple
application of different combinations of image effects and
filters, and the user only has to evaluate the outputs, choosing
those more appropriate for his needs until reaching a good
enough solution. The key factor of this scheme is that the
user doesn't need to know anything about the complex operations
of the image
interesting field for image processing is for medical purposes.
For example, the IEC can help doctors to enhance medical images,
making easy the identification of diseases, as can be seen
in the following figure, showing a Magnetic Resonance Image
(MRI), [Poli 1997].
interesting works can be found for plant grow monitoring with
botanical purposes, [Otobe 1998]
and [Tanaka 1999], measuring the
image treatment, the growing factor, the leaf colours, shape,
and so on.
Computer Graphics (CG)
Sound & Signal Treatment
and Knowledge Management