This section describes current trends in research and application of the PSO algorithm.

Multiobjetive optimization

Multiobjective Optimization (MO) problems are defined as those problems "where two or more more, sometimes competing and/or incommensurable, objective functions have to be minimized simultaneously"... [+]

Multimodal optimization

Multimodal functions have more than one optima, but can either have a single or more than one global optima. In the first case, the problem that a optimization algorithm has to deal with is to avoid premature convergence to a local optimum. In the second, the presence of several solutions with equal optimum fitness arises the issue of how an algorithm can locate all the global optima... [+]

2005, University CARLOS III of Madrid